Some commercial coffee outlets run initiatives to make higher use of those grounds, together with Starbucks’ “Grounds in your Garden” project, and community sponsored initiatives similar to “Ground to Ground”. This method is commonly known as the normal shaded methodology, or “shade-grown”. Starting within the 1970s, many farmers switched their manufacturing method to solar cultivation, by which coffee is grown in rows beneath full sun with little or no forest canopy. Additionally, Coffea canephora is much less susceptible to disease than C. Arabica and can be cultivated in lower altitudes and warmer climates the place C. The robusta strain was first collected in 1890 from the Lomani River, a tributary of the Congo River, and was conveyed from the Congo Free State to Brussels to Java around 1900.
Petioles of opposite leaves fuse on the base to form interpetiolar stipules, characteristic of Rubiaceae. The flowers are axillary, and clusters of fragrant white flowers bloom concurrently. Gynoecium consists of an inferior ovary, also characteristic of Rubiaceae.