Intralesional trypanosomes, hemorrhages and extravascular hemolysis could also be seen in some organs. The splenic parenchyma may contain large numbers of histiocytes with marked periarteriolar sheath lymphoid hyperplasia, lymphoid depletion, and/or hemosiderosis due to extravascular hemolysis. Cerebral endothelial hypertrophy and intralesional organisms may also be current. Macrocanthorhyncus hirudinaceus, the thorny-headed worm, infects the ileum and caudal small intestine of untamed boar (Fernandez-de-Mera et al., 2003, Mansouri et al., 2016, Sutherland-Smith, 2015). The life cycle of this nematode parasite is indirect with arthropod intermediate hosts.
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