The majority of warthogs are infected through the first few weeks of life and develop a generalized viremia, adequate to contaminate ticks that feed on them. The virus then stays in excessive numbers for a limited period in systemic lymph nodes. Adult warthogs stay infected however remaining viral load is low. Ticks in warthog burrows feed on contaminated animals and become contaminated (Jori and Bastos, 2009, Jori et al., 2013). Transmission to home pigs in endemic areas is by tick bites; maintenance of ASFV in domestic pigs and pig to pig transmission additionally occurs (Guinat et al., 2016, Sanchez-Vizcaino et al., 2015). Trypanosomiasis is acknowledged as a clinically important vector-borne, protozoal disease of people and livestock, with distinct agents and disease entities acknowledged in Africa and Central and South America.
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